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Facial Reconstructive – Facial Paralysis

Facial Reconstructive – Facial Paralysis

Facial Reconstructive - Facial Paralysis | Glendale | PasadenaThe loss of facial movement due to nerve damage is known as facial paralysis. The muscles of the face may sag or become weak. It can occur on either or both sides of the face. Some common reasons for facial paralysis are:

  • stroke
  • infection or swelling of the facial nerve
  • head trauma
  • neck or head tumor

Facial paralysis can occur suddenly or slowly over some months, which happens in the case of a neck or head tumor. The cause will determine how long the paralysis may last.

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke explains that Bell’s palsy is the most frequent reason behind facial paralysis. Around 40,000 Americans suffer sudden facial paralysis due to Bell’s palsy annually. Bell’s palsy leads to the swelling of the facial nerve. This usually causes facial muscles on one side to droop.

Considerate board certified facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon Dr. Eric Yavrouian provides treatments for facial paralysis to patients in Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank, Greater Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, CA, and other towns and cities in this area of The Golden State.

 

Facial Paralysis Treatment

Bell’s Palsy

Most Bell’s palsy patients will recover fully by themselves with or without treatment. But studies indicate that taking oral steroids such as prednisone as well as antiviral drugs can help enhance the possibility of full recovery. In addition, the patient can undergo physical therapy to strengthen their muscles and prevent long-term damage.

Patients who do not recover completely can undergo plastic surgery to address eyelids that cannot close fully or an uneven smile.

Eye damage is the most grievous danger associated with facial paralysis. Bell’s palsy typically prevents one or both eyelids from shutting properly, and the inability to blink normally can cause the cornea to dry out making it possible for particles to enter the eye and damage it.

Facial paralysis patients should apply artificial tears throughout the day as well as use an eye lubricant during bedtime. Furthermore, they may need to use a specialized clear plastic moisture chamber to ensure the eye remains moist and safe.

 

Stroke

People who experience facial paralysis due to a stroke will receive the same treatment as that given to patients of a majority of strokes. A special stroke therapy capable of destroying the stroke-causing clot may be useful for patients who have suffered a stroke recently.

For strokes that occurred long ago, the physician may use medications to mitigate the risk of further damage to the brain. Strokes are extremely time-sensitive, and if you suspect that you or a loved one may be experiencing a stroke, you should rush to an emergency room immediately.

 

Other Facial Paralysis

Patients with facial paralysis due to other reasons may also find it beneficial to undergo surgery to repair or restore compromised muscles or nerves or eliminate tumors. The surgeon may also place small weights within the upper lids to enable them to close.

People experiencing uncontrolled muscle motion along with facial paralysis can benefit from Botox injections (to freeze the muscles) as well as physical therapy.

 

Outlook for Facial Paralysis

Most people will completely recover from Bell’s palsy although it may take six months or more for complete recovery.

People suffering from a stroke should get medical attention immediately in order to enhance the chances of complete recovery with minimal damage to the brain and body.

Committed facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon Dr. Eric Yavrouian receives patients from Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank, Greater Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, CA, and nearby areas across the landscape for facial paralysis treatments.


For more information about treatments and procedures by Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon, Dr. Eric J. Yavrouian, serving patients in and around Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank and the Greater Los Angeles, CA area call 818-241-2150 or click here to contact him for a consultation.

Facial Reconstructive – Face Transplants

Facial Reconstructive - Face Transplants | Glendale | PasadenaIn 2008, the first near-total face transplant was performed in the US. After that, an increasing number of face transplant procedures have been undertaken in the US as well as other parts of the world.

This cosmetic surgery procedure offers a revolutionary solution to people with severely deformed faces allowing them to have a partially or totally restored face from a donor.

Dedicated board certified facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon Dr. Eric Yavrouian provides facial transplants to patients in Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank, Greater Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, CA, and surrounding locations.

 

What is a Face Transplant?

A face transplant is a procedure that replaces a portion or the entirety of an individual’s face. Face transplant candidates are people with severe facial disfigurement due to cancer, trauma, or a birth defect.

These candidates will undergo psychological testing to determine their emotional fitness to receive a face transplant. The time taken for the entire process is up to three years.

The initial step in a face transplant cosmetic surgery procedure is to obtain a healthy, matching donor tissue. After that, the candidate is prepared for the face transplant surgery. In this procedure, the surgeon must connect the new tissue and restore the flow of blood to the “new” face.

In general, the patient receives other surgeries pre and post the face transplant. The patient will also undergo a complex and extensive rehab process following the face transplant. This will involve the patient learning how to speak, eat, and create facial expressions.

 

Different from Flap Technique

A face transplant is distinct from a free facial flap procedure as it involves tissue from a donor. On the other hand, in the free flap surgery, skin and tissue are sourced from another location on the patient’s body.

This distinction is crucial as it means that the patient will not experience the risk of rejection or require immunosuppressant medication in a flap procedure.

 

Risks and Benefits

An individual receiving a face transplant will be on immunosuppressant medications for the long term. These medications assist the body in accepting the new face. However, there is a tradeoff as these immunosuppressant medications could increase the risk of infections.

But face transplant patients are usually in good health. This changes the risk-reward profile of immunosuppressant medications. Permanent loss of sensation and movement in the transplant and necrosis (tissue death) are other possible complications associated with face transplants.

Recent research indicates that some individuals do redevelop the ability to chew, smile, and speak within a year of their face transplant surgery.

 

How does an Individual look like after a Face Transplant?

A face transplant patient will not appear identical to the donor. Rather, the outcome will be more of a hybrid appearance. This does not mean that the patient may not face any psychological issues associated with identity. The face is an integral part of an individual’s sense of self.  

According to the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (AAFPRS), face transplants should only be performed on a person when all other options have been unsuccessful.

Reliable facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon Dr. Eric Yavrouian receives patients from Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank, Greater Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, CA, and other towns and suburbs in this region of the southwest for facial transplants.


For more information about treatments and procedures by Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon, Dr. Eric J. Yavrouian, serving patients in and around Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank and the Greater Los Angeles, CA area call 818-241-2150 or click here to contact him for a consultation.

The Nature of Facial Reconstruction – Cleft Palate Repair

The Nature of Facial Reconstruction - Cleft Palate Repair | GlendaleA Cleft palate makes it challenging for kids to eat and talk as the food and fluids enter the nasal passage rather than going to the stomach via the throat.

The palate needs to close off the inside nasal passage from the throat for a child to be able to talk and swallow in a normal manner.

A cleft palate can be repaired with cosmetic surgery. The objective is to seal off the opening in the roof of the mouth (palate). The child will remain in the operating room for only a few hours.

Board certified facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon Dr. Eric Yavrouian provides cleft palate repair to patients in Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank, Greater Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, CA, and surrounding communities and cities in this section of the US.

 

Surgical Procedure

During the procedure, a team of specialists works together. At the outset, an anesthesiologist will administer anesthesia on the child. The child will breathe in the medication in mist form through a mask. Once the child is asleep, the anesthesiologist will insert an intravenous (IV) into a vein to administer stronger pain drugs.  

Once the child is asleep, the plastic surgeon will undertake the following steps:

  • Place a brace or device into the child’s mouth to ensure it remains open during the procedure.
  • Place incisions on either side of the palate along with the cleft.
  • Dislodge the tissue layer attached to the bone of the hard palate enabling the stretching of the tissue.
  • Place incisions to dislodge skin from the hard palate
  • Create incisions along the gum line to enable the palate tissue to be stretched and shifted towards the middle of the mouth’s roof. This incision will be left open and allowed to heal by itself over the following three weeks.
  • Seal the inner tissue layer in the nose with dissolvable sutures (stitches).
  • Seal the outer tissue layer (oral) with absorbable sutures.

 

Benefits

The incision within the mouth of the child will appear in a Z-shape. This “Z” closure will enhance the child’s speech in the below mentioned ways:

  • This closure lengthens the soft palate. In comparison to an incision in a straight line, a “Z” incision is longer. The incision will shorten in length as it heals. The soft palate should be as long as possible. The availability of more tissue enables the palate to close off the nasal passage from the throat when the child speaks.
  • It allows for a more normal placement of the muscles in the soft palate enabling them to recover and grow.

 

Follow Up Procedures

In case the child has a cleft in the gum, it will be addressed in another procedure. The upper jaw of a child will require several years of growth before this opening is sealed. The gum cleft is typically closed when the child is seven or eight years of age. In general, the child will undergo cleft lip repair prior to the cleft palate surgery.

After this procedure, the appetite of the child many diminish. Following the surgery, it is vital to ensure that the child is consuming sufficient fluids to stay hydrated.

Prudent facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon Dr. Eric Yavrouian receives patients from Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank, Greater Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, CA, and nearby areas across the horizon for cleft palate repair.


For more information about treatments and procedures by Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon, Dr. Eric J. Yavrouian, serving patients in and around Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank and the Greater Los Angeles, CA area call 818-241-2150 or click here to contact him for a consultation.

Facial Reconstruction – Targeting Cleft Lip Repair

Facial Reconstruction – Targeting Cleft Lip Repair | Glendale An orofacial cleft refers to a condition where an infant is born with an opening in the lip and/or palate (mouth). Cleft lip is a commonly occurring congenital disability.

Most children with a cleft lift can undergo cosmetic surgery to repair this condition within the initial one or two years of their birth.

Successful board certified facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon Dr. Eric Yavrouian provides cleft lip repair to patients in Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank, Greater Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, CA, and other cities and neighborhoods in this area of the country.

 

How Do Clefts Develop?

In the first six to ten weeks of pregnancy, the tissue and bones of the embryo’s upper jaw, nose, and mouth fuse together to form the roof of the mouth and the upper lip. A cleft develops when portions of the mouth and lip do not fuse appropriately.

Clefts can commonly be characterized in one of the following categories:

  • Cleft lip by itself: commonly occurs in boys
  • Cleft palate by itself: commonly occurs in girls
  • Cleft lip and cleft palate together: occurs more frequently in boys

 

Cleft Repair Surgery

A baby typically undergoes cleft repair cosmetic surgery in the hospital under general anesthesia when the infant is three to six months of age.

In case the cleft lip is wide, the surgeon will use specialized procedures such as lip adhesion or a molding plate device to reduce the gap between parts of the lip before complete repair. This repair surgery typically creates a small scar on the lip beneath the nose.

There are many surgical techniques to reconstruct a cleft lip. The most widely accepted technique for cleft repair is the Millard rotation advancement (R-A) technique.

This approach involves rotation of the complete philtral dimple (groove in the upper lip) and Cupid’s bow (double curve of the upper lip). The scar will develop along the newly constructed philtral column or central section of the upper lip. The surgeon will adjust this rotation as necessary as the procedure is reasonably versatile.

The Millard technique involves the surgeon placing an incision in the periphery of the cleft side of the philtrum. They will then continue to cut upwards, medially, and to the side.

The surgeon will subsequently place another incision that extends to the top portion of the upper jaw (buccal sulcus). The size of the gap to be bridged determines the length of this incision. The surgeon will free soft tissue with the second incision. This enables them to lift the lip entirely from the bone beneath it.

Moreover, the surgeon should test the dissection to ensure free advancement in the middle. Poor outcomes usually occur due to inadequate dissection.

A procedure called the McComb nasal tip plasty can address nasal deformity. Here, the surgeon elevates the depressed dome of the nose and rim. After that, they free the cartilage on the cleft side from the other side and position it with reshaped nylon sutures.  

 

Advantages of Millard Technique

The benefits of the Millard rotation advancement technique are:

  • Versatile and flexible technique
  • Allows the construction of a Cupid’s bow that appears normal
  • Minimal tissue is discarded
  • Discreet suture line

The Millard technique may lead to the potential shortening of the lip in the vertical direction which is also a potential drawback of this approach.

Judicious facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon Dr. Eric Yavrouian receives patients from Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank, Greater Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, CA, and other towns and communities in this region of SoCal for cleft lip repair.

 

For more information about treatments and procedures by Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon, Dr. Eric J. Yavrouian, serving patients in and around Glendale, Pasadena, Burbank and the Greater Los Angeles, CA area call 818-241-2150 or click here to contact him for a consultation.

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